Show Menu

Wetenschapsfilosofie Engels W1-2 Cheat Sheet by

Wetenschapsfilosofie Engels
wetenschapsfilosofie     engels

Essent­ialists

Noam Chomsky / Generative Grammar
➝ Primary subject matter: Abstract universal principles that explain the properties of specific langua­ges
➝ The essence of our language is innate
➝ The basis of language is univ­ersal
➝ Semantics and pragmatics are not a part of the study of language (Chomsky)
Desc­rip­tive grammar with a penchant for judgment elicit­ation and intuition
➝ Goal: An intern­alized generative device that charac­terizes an infinite set of expres­sions

Emerge­ntists

Edward Sapir
➝ "­Lan­guage is primarily a cultural or social produc­t."
➝ Primary subject matter: Ling­uistic commun­ica­tion, cognition, variation and change
➝ Cognitive, cultural, historical and evolut­ionary explan­ations of linguistic phenomena
➝ Children's language as a series of stages in an ontoge­netic process of developing adult competence
➝ Goal: A mainly conven­tional and culturally transm­itted system for linguistic commun­ica­tion

Extern­alists

Leonard Bloomf­ield / "­str­uct­ura­lis­ts"
➝ Primary subject matter: Language use: structural properties of expres­sions and langua­ges
➝ Use of corpora
➝ Descri­ptions of expression structures and interr­ela­tions
Pred­ict­ion of properties
Patt­erns inferable from accessible features of language use
➝ Goal: A grasp of the distri­but­ional properties of a language
 

I-Language

Indi­vid­ual: strictly a property of individual human beings, not groups or commun­ities.
Inte­rnal: meaning is internal and a language is a state your mind/brain is in.
Inte­nsi­onal: a language is a specific procedure, generating infinitely many expres­sions of that language.

➝ Essent­ialist notion.
➝ Study of language in isolation.
➝ Two people could know different I-lang­uages yet generate the same string of words.

E-Language

Exte­nsi­onal: resear­ch-­based on attested utterances or extens­ionally definable objects.
Exte­rnal: view that conceives of a language as a public, inters­ubj­ect­ively accessible system used by a community of people.

➝ Other speakers can be involved in the study of a language, not just one object.
➝ Essent­ialists oppose this notion.

Compet­enc­e/P­erf­ormance

Esse­nti­alist distin­ction (Chomsky)
Comp­ete­nce: what knowing a language confers, a grasp of all sentences
Perf­orm­ance: real-time use of a language

Crit­ici­sm: "The structure that underlines a language use reflects the operation of general principles of human cognition, they shape how individual speakers and hearers represent form and meanin­g."
 

Semantics

Chom­sky: "­Sem­antics are merely a part of an interface level/form of syntax and are not related to the language facult­y." (not all Essent­ialists agree with this view)
Bloo­mfi­eld: "It is okay to assign semantics to other fields than language because of the underd­eve­loped state of semantic resear­ch."­

Autonomy thesis: syntactic form is indepe­ndent from semantics and pragma­tics.

Scales

Ordinal scale: a partial ordering equiva­lence in accept­ability or ranking in degree of unacce­pta­bility.
Interval scale: a measure of distance between ordinal positions.
Magn­itude estima­tion: a measure of subjects' judgments of physical stimuli on an interval scale.

Download the Wetenschapsfilosofie Engels W1-2 Cheat Sheet

1 Page
//media.cheatography.com/storage/thumb/soraya_wetenschapsfilosofie-engels-w1-2.750.jpg

PDF (recommended)

Alternative Downloads

Share This Cheat Sheet!

Like this cheat sheet? Check out our sponsors!

Readability-Score.com is a collection of tools to make your writing better. More readabile content means higher conversion rates and better reader engagement. Measure website and document readability, measure keyword density and more!

Click Here To Get Started!

 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          More Cheat Sheets by Soraya