CLEP Introductory Psychology Cheat Sheet by sparkledaisy
Studying for the CLEP Introductory Psychology test. We passed with a 76 & 72!!
first psychology lab in Leipzig Germany
It's all about STRUCTURE
Yale Univ Psychology classes
Brainstem (Medulla) = breathing & heartbeat
Reticular formation = arousal, sleep, filters stimuli
Cerebellum = voluntary movement
limbic system (Hippo HAT)
- HIPPOcampus = memory
- Hypothalamus = hunger, thirst, sexual behavior
- - pituitary gland = hormones
- Amygdala = fear, anger
- Thalamus = touch, taste, sight, hear
Crash Course Video - know your brain
Hippocampus (campus = learning/memories)
Hypothalamus (FFFF = Fight, Flight, Feed, Mating)
Thalamus (Tell 'em = senses (except for smell))
motor & sensory homunculus = proportionate representation of the brain’s dedication to the parts of the body responsible for motor functionality.
The more brain power involved in the planning, execution and control of a body part’s movements, the larger the body part is on the clay figure, thus giving a simple, yet accurate visual representation of the brain’s dedication to different areas of motor function.
When awake the brain produces alpha waves which are relatively slow
stage 1 breathing slows with irregular, erratic brain waves. alpha waves cease and are replaced with theta waves
Stage 2 deeper relaxation/occasional bursts of rhythmic waves "sleep spindles" and K-complexes
Stage 3 large slow delta waves. transition to Stage 4
Stage 4 stronger more consistent delta waves. These last 2 stages are referred to as slow-wave sleep
REM Sleep dreams
theory of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
Gestalt psychology tries to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world.
Roots in theories by Hume, Goethe, Kant.
Max Wertheimer's unique contribution was to insist that the "gestalt" is perceptually primary, defining the parts it was composed from, rather than being a secondary quality that emerges from those parts.
predispositions to perceive one thing and not another.
Crying baby girl - weak & scared
Crying baby boy - strong and mad
Expect the mail man and hear noises but he is not there.
Signal Detection Theory
ability to notice stimulus varies with psychological factors including motivation, past experience, expectations
Theories of emotion
Two Factor Theory of Emotion
Language development children have language acquisition device - universal built in mental system that steers us toward interpreting and using language in particular ways.
A good video describing his theory (1:47 BBC): Noam Chomsky on Language Aquisition
Labeled general intelligence "g" factor
Joy Paul Guilford
United States psychologist, best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production
Convergent thinking generally means the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity, for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests for intelligence.
Divergent thinking = creativity = thinking "outside the box"
Psychological Disorders - Origins
Medical - caused by biological reasons (injury, genetics, drugs)
Psychoanalytic - childhood conflicts, unconscious, misdirected anger
Cognitive - patterns of thinking are abnormal, success because of others (luck, generous), fail because of self (stupid, no talent)
Learn/Behavior - problem behavior is the problem, some type of classical conditioning or reinforcement has occurred for behavior to continue
Erikson's 8 Stages of Development
1. Nurturing = trust vs mistrust (baby-1yr)
2. Autonomy vs shame doubt (toddler-2 yr)
3. initiative vs guilt (preschool 3-5 yrs)
4. industrious vs inferior (6-12 yrs)
5. identity vs role confusion (12-18)
6. intimacy vs isolation (18-40)
7. generativity vs stagnation (40-65)
8. integrity vs despair (65 & up)
PERSONALITY - Individual Difference
Measure ways people differ
Traits - patterns of behavior
Alport (boy on train) to Freud
Define personality - stable/lasting behavior patterns/motivations.
Eyesneck - stable/unstable, introvert/extrovert
Big 5 Traits OCEAN
1. openness - questioning, independent, curious
2. consciousness - dependable, self control
3. extraversion - outgoing, socially adept
4. agreeableness - conforming, likeable
5. neuroticism - excitability, anxiousness
THERAPY - Biological Medical Approach
Hierarchy of Needs
proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological & fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality
studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein & the healthiest 1% of the college student population
largest, most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization at the top
descriptive statistics (mean, median mode)
Standard deviation - index of how widely scattered scores tend to be around mean
Inferential statistics allow inferences about populations based on sample. Use statistical significance as some differences could have happened by chance.
Coefficient near .00 if correlated by chance.
Bigger the coefficient is for the sample, the more reliable correlation.
Coefficients > +.70 are generally reliable. (+ or - correlation)
Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiment (May, 1962)
0:00-9:15 Introduction and instruction
9:26-12:05 First test subject
12:05-16:02 Second test subject
16:02-21:58 Explanation and procedure
21:58-39:18 Third test subject
39:18-44:19 Review and variations of tests
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Cognition
Sensory Adaptation & Habituation
Sensory Adaptation - neural receptors reduce sensitivity to continual stimulus (ie - adapt hot/cold water after brief time, eyes adjust dark room (cones 10 min, rods 30), smell own house)
Habituation - decreased response to stimulus after repeated behavior, used to elicit stronger response (alcohol 1st drink vs alcoholic taking a drink, favorite food, living near train track)
sensitization repeated intense stimulus increases response to weaker
Informational Social Influence Theory
4:35 Foot in the Door
5:30 Stanford Prison Experiment
8:00 Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance - when our thoughts differ from others we feel discomfort we want to resolve
Informational Social Influence Theory - When we are not sure what to do we copy other people, especially in crisis or if the other person is an expert
Cats & puzzle boxes.
Thorndike studied instrumental conditioning, which involves an increase in the probability of a response occurring as a result of a positive outcome. This type of learning would come to be called operant conditioning by B.F. Skinner.
Law of Effect behavior changes because of consequences
moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance
Functionalism and Structuralism
Edward Titchener 1867-1927
First Psychology lab in the U.S. (1892 Professor at Cornell)
Studied under Wundt
Structuralism, Stimulus Error, Introspection
1. identify structure elements
2. how they are grouped
3. cause of specific arrangement of elements
behavior of organisms
Blank Slate = molded by environment..
Pigeon operant conditioning, reward system
Cerebral cortex (outer cover) = motor, cognitive, sensory processes
Frontal Lobes = coordinating movement in higher level thinking (planning & predicting consequences of behaviors)
- Wernicke's area = language comprehension
- Broca's area = speech production
Parietal lobes - top of head, behind frontal lobes = touch, hands/feet
Temporal lobes - above parietal, sides of ears = hearing
Occipital lobes - base of skull in back = vision (ocular)
Left & Right Brain
Gestalt psychologists rules for brain piecing together meaningful experiences from fragments of sensation.
Sensation & Perception
Sensation - Bottom up (vision, hearing, smell) receive and relay outside information to the brain
Perception - Top Down brain interprets & organizes that information
Apparent movement of stable objects as we move. Drive down the road and close objects appear to be moving backward and the nearer they are the faster they move. Far away objects move with you but more slowly as they get farther away.
Youtube video for more about Motion parallax
Find it on Amazon.com
Piaget's Schema, Assimilation, Equilibrium
Schema = building block of knowledge
Assimilation = using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation
Equilibrium = child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation
Accommodation = existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation
Spearman "g" factor, factor analysis, spatial numeric reasoning,
Thurstone - psychometrics, 7 clusters of mental abilities
Gardner - multiple abilities in different forms, savant syndrome, , 8 intelligences
Sternberg - 3 intelligences, analytical, creative, practical
divergent thinking, emotional intelligence, eugenics,
Alfred Binet - mental age test (IQ)
Individual Difference Trait
PERSONALITY - Social Cognitive
Cognition. Proposed by "Bobo" Bandura
Interaction between traits & social contexts
Watch & imitate others & think about how that affects us.
We are creators & products of the situations we surround ourselves with.
Personal control = how much control we have over our environment.
Reciprocal determinism - how people think and behave in their environment interacts to influence consistency of behavior
PERSONALITY - Humanistic
People basically good
Carl Rogers "Self Theory" - person centered
true self - talents, thoughts, desires, feelings
self concept - what we think we are like
ideal self - what we think we would like to be
self actualization - accept who you are
conditions of worth - hinder self actualization
Self Esteem literature
Maslow rejected standard tests and measured self concept through therapy and questionaires.
THERAPY - Learning/Behavioral
Graded potential, action potential, refractory period
Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, split-half reliability
Cronbach's alpha - measures reliability (.70 or higher)
Validity, face valitidy (content), Predictive validity, construct validity
see Quizlet cards for definition of terms
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Social Influence
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Aggression & Altruism
a theory in linguistics: one's language determines one's conception of the world
The strong version says that language determines thought, and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories, whereas the weak version says only that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior.
reinforcements after a response at end of a given time period
variable interval schedule time between reinforcements changes
fixed interval schedule occur on the same day each week
ratio schedules partial reinforcement schedules (reinforcement delivered based on the number of correct responses).
fixed ratio schedule correct number of responses required remains the same
variable ratio schedule number of required responses changes
How your ear works
Ossicles (Hammer/Malleus, Anvil, Stirrup)
Cochlea (hair cells on basilar membrane) receptors for hearing
William James - Father of modern Psychology
People function like a machine (industrial revolution)
Based on evolutionary thoughts (close to Darwin's "origin of species")
It's all about FUNCTION
Subject links together certain events, behavior, stimuli in process of conditioning.
Classical Conditioning - Pavlovian, reflexive, elicited, pair 2 stimuli, CS + US, stimuli appear regardless of learner's behavior
Operant Conditioning - learning an association between stimulus and response (Reinforcement = increase in behavior Punishment=decreases behavior) BF Skinner
Observational Learning - we can learn by watching others
John B Watson
1878 – 1958
Behaviorist. established the psychological school of behaviorism.
Conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising
"Little Albert" experiment (condition fear of a white rat into "Little Albert", an 11-month-old boy)
How your brain works
Priming, Fast brain, Slow brain
Sensory (Afferent = To cell) receive info from senses
Motor (Efferent = Away from cell) from spine/brain to signal muscle contractions
Inter (Association = connecting) Think, see, perceive
Electrical & chemical process
Dendrites, axon, myelin sheath
neuron rest = -70 mV
Glia = "neuronal glue" hold neurons together, provide nutrients
1886 specialized in nervous disorders (talking cure)
Uber Coca 1st publication (about benefits of cocaine)
1900 interpretation of dreams psychoanalysis
ID - pleasure principle (immediate gratification, impulsive) (devil)
EGO - reality principle (mediates between id & superego) (self)
SUPEREGO - morality principle (social part, get along with others) (angel)
Phobia - cause when you want something you can't have
FREUD - Psychosexual Stages
1. Oral stage
2. Anal stage
3. Phallic stage
two photoreceptors in retina, rods & cones - change physical light energy into neural messages (transduction)
The rods more numerous, (120 million), & more sensitive than cones. But they're not sensitive to color.
The 6 to 7 million cones provide eye's color sensitivity. They're more concentrated in the central yellow spot (macula). In the center of that region is the "fovea centralis ", a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones.
Opponent Process Theory
There are some color combinations that we never see, such as reddish-green or yellowish-blue.
Opponent-process theory suggests that color perception is controlled by the activity of three opponent systems.
Three independent receptor types all have opposing pairs: white and black, blue and yellow, and red and green.
theory of color vision = the sensation of any color can be achieved by the superposition of pure red, green and blue colors
(video mentions color blindness)
Sensation=related to transforming energy from outside stimulus into neural energy to be used for perception.
difference threshold increases in proportion to the intensity or magnitude of stimuli. Difference harder to notice with more intense stimuli than weaker ones.
Difference in 40 - 60 watt bulb compared to 70 - 90 watt bulb (20 watts difference)
"Vader's" Law :)
representative heuristic - how similar or "representative" one event is. Assessing similarity of objects and organizing them based around the category prototype.
availability heuristic - judging the likelihood that an event will happen from what has happened in he past
heuristics - judgmental shortcuts generally get us where we need to go – quickly – but at the cost of occasionally sending us off course
(algorithm - always produces the answer, but takes longer)
PERSONALITY - Psychoanalytic Psychodynamic
Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson,
Freud (sex, aggression) dream analysis
Freud and Jung - free association
Thematic Apperception Test: pictures you narrate
Behavior motivated by unconscious needs
People are basically bad
nurture refers to the effects of the environment on development
"secular rise in IQ scores"
substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day.
New test subjects take older tests, almost every case average scores are significantly above 100. Test score increases continuous & approx. linear from earliest years of testing to present
Hypnosis, Hallucinations, Psycoactive drugs (effect brain) (pain)
Dissociation - detach from surroundings while still conscious (split consciousness)
Depressants - alcohol, opiate, barb. (morphine, heroine)
- too much opiate ingestion and body stop making natural opiates (endorphins) = withdrawal
Stimulants - caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines (meth, ecstasy, cocaine)
Hallucinogens - plant, fungal, synthetic (LSD, psychedelics)
Pregnancy - First Trimester
Babinski, Moro, Palmar Reflexes
Normal reflex in newborns - 3-4 months.
Absence of reflex may suggest injury to bones or spinal cord.
AKA: Startle response; Startle reflex; Embrace reflex
Normal in children up to 2 years old, disappears as the child gets older (maybe as early as 12 months)
Present in a child older than 2 years/adult, often a sign of a brain or nervous system disorder -
•Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease)
•Brain tumor or injury
•Spinal cord injury, defect, or tumor
Social Exchange Theory human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives
Social Responsibility norm obligation to act for the benefit of society at large
Bystander effect in a crowd, no one helps https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgE5q5rDlaA
We feel obligated to help those who have helped us.
The kin-selection hypothesis is one explanation.
Frustration Agression Hypothesis
Frustration produces a readiness for aggression if triggered
implicit (procedural) = being aware of how to do something without consciously know how
explicit (declarative) = being aware of what you know
iconic = brief photographic memory of an image
echoic = brief memory of an auditory stimulus
flashbulb = vivid memories of emotionally charged events
working = short-term memory
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