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Force and Motion Cheat Sheet by

science     motion     force

Vocab

Motion
distance from another object changes, change in position
Reference point
place or object used for comparison
Speed
the time it takes something to move a distance
Velocity
speed and direction
Vector quantity
size/m­agn­itude and direction
Scalar quantity
size/m­agn­itude
Constant speed
a speed that stays the same through the distance
Instantaneous speed
speed at any instant
Distance
the length of all parts/­between two points
Displa­cement
the distance from start to end, the overall change in position and a direction
Accele­ration
the rate at which velocity changes
Equili­brium
all the forces of an object balance out
Inertia
the property of an object that it resists to change in motion
Mass
amount of matter in an object
Momentum
mass in motion

Important Inform­ation

Force
-a push or a pull
 
-results in two or more objects intera­cting with each other
 
-all forces have magnitude and direction
 
-measured in Newtons (N)
Acceleration
-increase speed: speed up
 
-decrease speed: slow down, decele­ration
 
-change direction
Speed (dista­nce­-time) graphs
-point on graph= location of an object from 0 at a particular time
 
-straight slope=­con­stant speed
 
-steeper slope=­faster
 
-horiz­ontal line=no movement
 
-curved line=a­cce­ler­ation
Veloci­ty-time graphs
-point on graph=­speed of object at a particular time
 
-straight line=c­onstant accele­ration
 
-steeper slope=­greater accele­ration
 
-horiz­ontal line=c­onstant speed
 

Formulas

Speed
distance / time
Distance
speed x time
Time
distance / speed
Average speed
total distance / total time
Accele­ration
final velocity - initial veloci­ty/time
Mass
force / accele­ration
Force
mass x accele­ration
Accele­ration
force / mass
Momentum
mass x velocity

Newton's Laws of Motion

Law 1
An object at rest will stay rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion until a force acts on it.
Law 2
Force causes accele­ration, while mass resists accele­ration.
Law 3
Any action has an equal and opposite reaction.

Types of Forces

Contact forces
a force exerted by physically touching
Applied force
a force applied by a person­/object to change another object's motion
Normal force
a force exerted by a surface on an object resting on it
Friction
one surface exerts another when in contact, acts in opposite direction to the object's motion
Non-contact force
a force that acts without physically touching
Gravity
a natural force that pulls objects toward the center of the earth
Magnetism
materials with magnetic fields that attrac­t/repel other objects
Electrical force
the force of two charged objects attrac­tin­g/r­epe­lling each other
Centri­petal force
force that keeps objects moving in a circular path, "­cen­ter­-se­eki­ng"
Centri­fugal force
perception of being pushed outward, "­false force"

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