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Industrialism, Imperialism, and Nationalism Cheat Sheet by

history     revolution     european

Vocab

Industrialism
a system marked by the building of factories and manufa­ctu­ring, and employment in factories instead of in agricu­ltural industries
Textiles
cloth, fabric, woven by machine
Urbani­zation
the process of an area becoming more urban and cities grow
Capital
money used to invest in businesses
Assembly line
production method that breaks down a job into separate tasks where one worker will do the same task over and over again
Socialism
an economic system where most businesses are public, government provides benefits to the poor, less economic inequality
Capitalism
an economic system where indivi­duals own their busine­sses, free-m­arket, little to no government interv­ention
Commun­ism
a politi­cal­/ec­onomic system where the government controls production and how products are distri­buted, equal wealth between citizens
Karl Marx
founder of communism, German revolu­tio­nary, wrote "­Com­munist Manife­sto­" in 1848 with Freidrich Engels
Adam Smith
founder of capita­lism, wrote "­Wealth of Nation­s" which promoted division of labor and free trade
Industrial Revolution
the period from the mid-1700s to mid-1800s of rapid techno­logical advanc­ements, but marked by poor working conditions and low pay
Impe­ria­lism
the practice of one country contro­lling the government and economy of another countr­y/t­err­itory
White Man's Burden
a poem written by Rudyard Kipling in 1899, said that it was a white man's respon­sib­ility to invade "­unc­ivi­liz­ed" Asian + African countries and teach them European culture
Social Darwinism
the belief that Europeans were superior by natural selection and they were better­-fitted to survive
Sepoy Rebellion
in 1857, sepoys rebel against British soldiers and refuse British cartridges as a revolt against the British East India Company in control of India at the time
Opium War
a war that resulted in China being forced to open their ports, caused by the illegal opium smuggling to people addicted in China from British India
Meiji Restoration
overthrew shogun and gave power to emperor, modernizes Japan and introduces a new government like Germany's
Dollar diplom­acy
the use of diplomacy by the USA to promote themselves as good trade partners by guaran­teeing loans to important foreign countries
Nation­alism
pride in and loyalty to one's nation or ethnic group
 

Indust­rialism

Causes
Changes in farming - better farming methods lead to more crops with less labor, so less farm jobs, so a growing workforce for factories in the city
 
Britain's resources and demand - large workforce, raw materials, and a growing demand for manufa­ctured goods
 
New invent­ions- spinning jenny, steam engine, Bessember furnace
Events
Child labour - children worked in coal mines, cotton mills, etc. in dangerous conditions and for low pay
 
Invention of steam power - the introd­uction of steam power led to new develo­pments in transp­ort­ation, commun­ica­tion, and production
Results
More factories - long, tiring work for former farmwo­rkers in factories
 
Economic changes - new economic system called capitalism is developed, indivi­duals own their own business and resources
 
Improv­ements for the people - new inventions and tech, better wages, and developed industrial societies

Nation­alism

Events
Political unrest - countries start wars to prove their superi­ority
 
Gain indepe­ndence - nations start to fight for indepe­ndence, form separate countries, etc. Italy in 1871, Germany in 1870
Results
Indepe­ndent countries
 
Intern­ational rivalries

Imperi­alism

Causes
Social Darwinism - the belief that Europeans were superior by natural selection, that they were chosen as the best to survive
 
White Man's Burden - a poem by Rudyard Kipling, described that a white man had a respon­sib­ility to teach "­unc­ivi­liz­ed" Africans and Asians European culture
Events
Berlin Conference - 1884
"­Scr­amble for Africa­" , European countries lay claim to most African countries, Liberia and Ethiopia stay indepe­ndent
Meiji Restor­ation
overthrew shogun, samurai groups returned power to emperor because of disagr­eements about opening up trading ports, introduced a new government
Dollar diplomacy
the USA's method of guaran­teeing foreign countries loans as a way to promote themselves as good economic partners
People
Matthew C. Perry
sent to Japan to open their ports from America in 1853, forced Japan to start trading with western countries by show of military force

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