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biology

The Respir­ation System and Ventil­lation

The process of breathing out
Disease caused by smoking
1. Interc­ostal muscles and diaphragm realx.
1. It can cause cancer
2. Throrax volume decreases
2. It can cause lung diseases by damiging your airways and the alvioli found in the lungs
3. Air is forced out
3. It affects the heart and blod vessesl

Aerobic Respir­ation in plants

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

Internal Structure of a Leaf

Adaptation of leaves

1. Leaves are broad so there's large surface area exposed to light
2. Most of the chloro­plasts are found in the palisade layer so it can get the most light
3. The upper epidemis is transp­arent so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer
4. Leaves have a network of vascular bundles which deliver water and it helps support the leaf structure
5. The waxy cuticle helps to reduce water loss by evapor­ation

Rate of Photos­ynt­hesis

Light
Carbon Dioxide
Temp­era­ture
Chloro­phyll uses light energy to perform photos­ynt­hesis
CO2 is one of the raw materials needed for photos­ynt­hesis
Temper­ature affects the rate of photos­ynt­hesis because it affects the enzymes involved

Experiment to measure the rate of p/s

Pathogens

Pathogens are microo­rga­nisms that cause disease e.g certain types of bacteria and viruses

Plants, Animals and Bacteria

Plants
Anim­als
Bact­eria
Multic­ellular
Multic­ellular
Single­-celled and micros­copic
Have chloro­plasts which means they can photos­ynt­hesise
No chloro­plast
Some can photos­ynt­hesise
They have cell walls made out of cellulose
No cell walls
No nucleus
Store carboh­ydrates as sucrose or starch
Store carboh­ydrates as glycogen
They feed off other organisms - both living and dead
 
Most have nervous coordi­nation and can move around.
They have circular chromo­somes of DNA
 

Osmosis

Osmosis is the net mocement of water molecu­les across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water consen­tration to a region of lower water concen­tration

Active Transport

Active Transport is the net movement of particles against a concen­tration gradient using energy released during respir­ation. Oxygen is essential because of respir­ation

Test for Glucose and Starch

Bene­dict's test for Glucose
Iodine test for Starch
- Add Benedict's reagent (blue) to a sample and heat it. Make sure the solution doesn't boil.
- Just add iodine solution to the test sample
■ If Glucose is present it will form a coloured precip­itate
■ If starch is present the sampe changes from browny­-yellow to blue­-bl­ack colour
■ Blue -> Green -> Yellow -> Orange -> Brick Red
■ If there is no starch it stays browny­-yellow

Mineral Ions

Nitr­ates
Pota­ssium
Contain nitrogen for making amino acids and proteins. These are needed for cell growth.
To help the enzymes needed for photos­ynt­hesis and respir­ation.

Variables

Inde­pen­dent
Depe­ndent
The variable you CHANGE
The variable you MEASURE

Factors

Biotic
Abio­tic
Living
Non-Living

Motor Neurone

Stages of a Reflex Arc

CORMMSS

Change
Organism
Repeat
Measure x 2
Same x 2

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