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US History 2 - 1920's - 60's Cheat Sheet by

Includes 1920's, Depression, 30's Foreign Policy, WWII, Cold War-60's.
history     states     cold     policy     foreign     depression     war     u-s-     united

Roaring Twenties

Palmer Raids
1920 operation by Att. Gen. Mitchel Palmer, marshals raid homes of suspected radicals and hq of organi­zations in 32 cities
Nativism
Resurfaced because of fear & prejudice many felt towards German and commun­ists.
Fundam­ent­alism
Bible = literal true without error
Prohib­ition
18th ammendment in 1920 until 21st ammendment in 33
Flappers
Radical fashioned women
Art Deco
Art Style of 20's and 30s
Harlem Renais­sance
1920's when black achiev­ements in art, music and literature flourished
Back to Africa Movement
Encouraged blacks to return to Africa for their own empire because of racists in states
NAACP
Nat'l Assoc. for Adv. of Color Ppl, found in 1909, got supreme court to declare grandf­ather clause uncons­tit­utional
ACLU
Amer. Cib. Lib. Union - Defend­srights that consti­tution grants
Jazz
Popular dance music of 20's
18 Amendment
Prohibited manufa­cture, sale, and distr. of alcohol
19 Amendment
Right to vote to women in federal or state elections
21st amendment
Repealed 18th amendment
National Origins Act
Made immigrant restri­ctions a permanent policy, mostly English & German allowed
Volstead Act
Bill passed by congress to enforce the language of 18th amendment
Scopes Trial
1925 Tennesse trial of Teaacher John Scopes charged w/ teaching evolution.
Warren Harding
29th, republ­ican, "­Return to Normal­cy". Marred by scandal
Calvin Coolidge
Rigid economy, "­Silent Cal", True Republ­ican, believed in gov't supporting big business and little interv­ention
Marcus Garvey
Black leader during 20's, founded universal negro improv­ement assoca­tian, advocated migration to Africa, deported to Jamaica in 27
Zora Neal Hurston
Black writer, folklore scholar, author of "­Their Eyes Were Watching God", sympathy for blacks.
Langston Hughes
Black poet, described rich culture of black life using rhythems influenced by jazz. Wrote of hope and defiance & culture.
Bonus Army
WWI vets that marched to DC in 32 to demand immediate payment, were denied
Teapot Dome Scandal
Oil discovered on fed. land > Contracts given from bribes, total ~ $400M in 20's USD
Lindbergh
Crosses atlantic solo, instant fame
Missis­sippi Flood
Kills 300, caused $4B

World War II

Axis Powers:
Fascist Italy, Empire O' Japan, Nazi Germany, Hungary (no choice), Finland (hates USSR)
Allied Powers:
China, British Empire, France, USSR, USA, other small nations contri­buted
Germany First Policy
UK/US agreement, Germany should be biggest effort because it's strongest
Pearl Harbor
Dec. 7, 1941 - Drew US into war on a sunday morning, missed oil and aircraft carriers
Air War: "­Memphis Belle"
First to make 25 bombing runs, so did Jimmy Stewart!
Sea War:
USS Pamponito Submarine, USS Iowa Battle­ship, USS Enterprise Aircraft Carrier
D-Day
Largest Amphibian Assault, lead by Eisenh­ower, thousands dead
Yalta Agreement
Agreement to split Germany, Eastern Germany with USSR
Soviet Union Declared Japan War
Last in August 8-9, 1945, rested up and reinforced late
VJ Day
Signed on USS Missouri
Largest Armed Forces
Russia, China, Japan, Germany, US, British Empire
Death Toll:
~60M
Russian Death Toll:
~20M, POW's ~3.3M
London Death Toll:
~85k
Dresden Death Toll
~100-125k, caused form Firestorm
Nanking Death Toll
~400k
Japan Cities Toll
~ 66 cities
Peak of Bomb Drops @ Japan
~37,992 (by August, ~2weeks of petroleum left)
Nagasaki Bomb
~20k Tons of TNT
Atom Bomb Death Toll
Combined ~ 350k
Leaders:
President for most war: Roosevelt, PM of UK = Churchill, USSR = Stalin, Allied Europe = Eisenh­ower, Allied Asia =McCar­thur, PM of Japan = Hideki Tojo
 

The Great Depression

October 29, 1929
Stock Market Crashes - first major indicator of coming depres­sion, dubbed "­Black Tuesda­y".
Smoot-­Hawley Tariff
High Tariff contri­buted to global downturn
1st New Deal
Legisl­ation about Relief, Recovery & Reform
2nd New Deal
WPA/Jobs
SSA
Social Sec. Act - Forced retirment savings
Wagner Act / NLRb / Nat'l Labor Rel. Board
Increasing worker protec­tions, protected unions.
3rd New Deal/ J.M. Keynes
English economist who believed Govt should spend to help gdp
Glass-­Ste­agall Act - FDIC
Fed. Dep. Insur. Corp. - 1933, insured bank deposits,
Securites & Exchange Commission - SEC
Regulated stock market, restricted margin buyin
Social Security Act - SSI
Provided pensions, unempl­oyment insurance, aid to disabled and poor. Welfare and forced savings
Tennessee Valley Authory - TVA
Fed gov't built dams for electr­icity. Still around.
Hoover­villes
Shanty towns named after president
Dust Bowl
TX, OK, KS, reason wy ppl movede west
FDR
establ­ished 20+ programs, replaced Hoover, Supreme court knocked a lot down, Biggest fear was Facism
Signs of Facism
Irrational Manipu­lation of masses, Social Darwinism (Supreme race), Natlism on steroids, glorif­cation of state, absolute obedience to leaders, racism, anti-c­omm­unist
Result of Facism
Universal Propag­anda, Milita­rism, Glorified Author­itarian Leaders, Instit­uti­ona­lized Persec­ution, Intole­rance of ideas outside Fascis­m(book burning), Resistance in form of minorities

WWII Affected Gender Norms for American Society

Because so many males were drafte­d/j­oined to fight in WWII, females were encouraged to contribute by working instead of being the typical housewife. Women now gained much more indepe­ndence. This was slightly combatted after the war due to the men returning and sexist mental­ities remaining.

Cold War (46 - 90's)

Operation Crossroads
Bikini Atoll testing in 46, Able & Baker, Baker 21Kt, sank USS Saratoga
Cold War Costs
~1.5 - 3T
Brande­nberg Gate
Symbolic Gate @ Berlin
Korean War (50-53)
First major use of Helico­pters
Tito
Yugoslavic leader who kept them indepe­ndent
NATO
US, Canada, UK, France, Portugal, West Germany, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Norway, Belgium, Nether­lands
Warsaw Pact
USSR, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech, East Germany, Albania
George Kennan
Diplomat @ Russia, sent analysis of Leader­ship, Contai­nment Policy author
George Marshall
Trumans Foreign advisor & Secretary of state, endorsed plan to give aide to failing nationas
Britain continued rations
For 7 years after the war
Truman
Ike, great president after FDR
Eisenhower
Came after Truman
Stalin
Died in 53, causing power struggle
Nakita Khrusc­hchev
Next in power, less cruel but still craycray
Chairman Mao
Drove remaining China into Taiwan
Berlin Blockade
Western Berlin surrou­nded, Stalin blocks land, west air drops
Korean War
N.Korea in old Japan, attacks South. No soviet troops but did get training and funding. Eventually coalition Nato takes seoul with30 nations, China sends 2m, 3 years later, stalemate @ 38th Parallel.
Senator Joseph McCarthy
Gained power by accusing ppl of being red, "­Dem­ago­g"
Guatemala Coup
US Backed by CIA, rids Jacobo Arbenz

WWII @ Home

Rationing
Ration food, gas, rubber, etc for troops, a lot of farmers left for war
Recycling
Collected glass, meta, rubber, even fats. Boyscouts recycled Newspapers too well
Relocation
People all over the nation moving towards jobs/ factories
Victory Gardens
Encour­agement of small family gardens, 1/3 of all vegetabls produced, not rationed
Radio
Becomes main source of news & entert­ainment
Includes
"Dont sit under apple tree" - Andrew Sisters, "­Report from Paratr­oop­er" by Edward Murrow, "I'll be seeing you" by Tommy Dorsey & Sinatra in 1940
Rememb­erance
People wrote huge #'s of Letters, kept pictures
Relocation Revisited
Japanese internment camps created, loss of private property, etc

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