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Paper 3 Psychologists Cheat Sheet by

A brief explanation for psychologists in the following units: issues and debates, relatioinships, schizophrenia, aggression.
psychology     a-level     relationships     schizophrenia     2017     issuesanddebates     aggression

Issues and Debates

FREUD
alpha bias e.g. (theory of moral develo­pment), psychic determ­inism e.g. (uncon­scious conflicts repressed in childhood)
MILGRAM
beta bias e.g. (only male partic­ipants)
VAN IJZEN­DOORN & KROON­ENBURG
consider culture in conclusion
AINSW­ORTH
strange situation = ethnoc­entric, imposed etic
DESCA­RTES
born equipped with unders­tanding of key concepts
LOCKE
tubula rosa (blank slate)
GESTALT psych­olo­gists
whole greater than the sum of it's parts
RADFORD & KIRBY
general principles of laws
SKINNER
establ­ishing principles e.g. (operant condit­ioning)
EYESENCK
establ­ishing dimens­ioins e.g. (perso­nality measur­ement)
RAINE
e.g. of social sensit­ivity

Issues and Debates Evaluation

BOWLBY
attachment research conducted on mothers => conseq­uences
TAKANO & OSAKA
comparing USA & Japan
AINSW­ORTH
attachment types = culturally relative
EKMAN
facial expres­sions universal
SOON et al
press button? know 10 secs before aware

Relati­onships

ALTMAN & TAYLOR
social penetr­ation theory
DION et al
attractive people ratedas kind, strong & successful
WALSTER et al
matching hypothesis
KERCK­HOFF & DAVIS
filter theory
THIBAULT & KELLEY
social exchange theory
WALSTER et al
equity theory
RUSBULT
investment model
DUCK
phase model
SPROULL & KIESLER
reduced cues theory
WALTHER
hyperp­ersonal model
MCKENNA & BERGH
absence of gating
MALTBY et al
levels of parasocial relati­onships
MCCUT­CHEON
absorp­tio­n-a­ddi­ction model
BOWLBY
attachment theory explan­ation (early attach­ment)
AINSW­ORTH
attachment theory (insec­ure­-re­sis­tan­t=more likely)

Relati­onships Evaluation

BUSS
survey -> emphasis on charac­ter­istics diff. between males and females
CLARK & HATFIELD
q: 'i find you attrac­tive, would you go to bed with me tonight?'
SINGH
0.7 waist to hip ratio indicates fertility
MILLER et al
lap dance study
SPRECHER & HENDRICK
rel. satisf­action and self-d­isc­losure
TANG et al
china -> self-d­isc­losure less likely to => rel. satisf­action
DUCK
phase model
PALMER & PETERSON
physically attractive rated more politi­cally knowle­dgeable & competent
TOWHEY
sexist belief => more likely desire phy. att.
WALSTER et al
preferred more phy. att.
FEINGOLD
similarity between ratings of att. in actual couples
KERCK­HOFF & DAVIS
short and long-term importance in filters
WINCH
similarity typical to beginning attraction
LEVINGER
social change prevented replic­ation
ANDERSON et al
older partners = diff. filter order
CLARK & MILLS
exchange & communal rel.
WALSTER et al
equity theory
UTNE et al
survey, equitable = more satisfied
AUMER­-RYAN et al
cultural influences (indiv­idu­alistic & collec­tivist)
HUSEMAN et al
benevo­lents
LE & AGNEW
greatest commitment => most stable, long- lasting
RUSBULT
commited 'battered' women more likely return
GOODF­RIEND & AGNEW
invest in future plans
ROLLIE & DUCK
added resurr­ection
AKERT
person who initiates sufferers less
KELLIN
gender diff. in late phases
WALTHER & TIDWELL
non verbal cues not absent but diff.
PAINE et al
self disclosure depends on type of CMC
WHITTY & JOINSON
online q = more direct, intimate
MCKENNA & BARGH
lonely & socially anxious people able too express true selves
MALTBY et al
link: celebrity worship & body image in girls
MCCUT­CHEON et al
insecure attach­ments no more likely to form parasocial rel.
SCHMID & KLIMMT
similar attachment to Harry Potter in indivi­dualist & collec­tivist culture
 

Schizo­phrenia

GOTTE­SMAN
genetic similarity correlates with sz
RIPKE et al
108 separate genetic variations
JUCKEL et al
negative correl­ation between ventral striatum activity and overall negative symptoms
ALLEN et al
auditory halluc­ina­tions = lower superior temporal gyrus & anterior cingulate gyrus activity
FROMM­-RE­ICH­MANN
schizo­phr­eno­genic mothers
BATESON et al
double­-bind theory
FRITH et al
metare­pre­sen­tation, central control
PHARAOH et al
family therapy strategies
MEEHL
original diathe­sis­-stress model

Schizo­phrenia Evaluation

CHENIAUX et al
poor inter-­rater reliab­ility in diagnosing
ROSENHAN
being sane in insane places
COTTON et al
males diagnosed more often
BUCKEY et al
50% diagnosed with sz & depression
TIENARI et al
adopted children still at risk
MELTZER et al
clozapine more effective than typical
GOLDM­AN-­RAKIC et al
low dopamine in pre-fr­ontal cortex => sz
READ et al
69% women = history of abuse
JAUHAR et al
CBT = small signif­icance
PHARAOH et al
family theapy = moderately effective
TIENARI et al
diathesis = genes & trauma

Aggression

GOSPIC et al
ultimate game
MANN et al
dexenf­lur­amine
KLINE­SMITH et al
pellet gun/mouse trap => chilli sause
COCCARO et al
twin study -> concor­dance in physical agg.
RHEE & WALDMAN
adoption study -> genetic more prominent
BRUNNER et al
Brunner syndrome in Dutch family
TINBE­RGEN
stickl­eback fish models
WILSON & DALY
mate retention strategies
SHACK­LEFORD et al
correl­ation: men using retention strategies & women reporting violence
DOLLARD et al
frustr­ati­on-­agg­ression
GEEN
jigsaw puzzle
BANDURA
social learning theory
BANDURA et al
bobo doll study
ZIMBARDO
de-ind­ivi­duation -> part of crowd
PRENT­ICE­-DUNN & ROGERS
private & public self-a­war­eness
DODD
not respon­sible, do anything?
IRWIN & CRESSEY
dispos­itional explan­ation/ import­ation model
DELISI et al
juvenile delinq­uents imported diff. charac­ter­istics, correl­ation: played violent games & agg. behaviour
CLEMMER
situat­ional explan­ation/ depriv­ation model
STEINER
inmate violence more common with diff. types of people
BARTH­OLOW & ANDERSON
experi­ment: violent vs non-vi­olent game
ROBER­TSON et al
longit­udinal: TV = predict agg.
KRAHE et al
desens­iti­sation: arousal with violent or non-vi­olent film
FISCHER & GREIT­EMEYER
songs derogatory towrds women

Aggression Evaluation

RAINE
APD = less grey matter
RAYLEIGH et al
vervet monkeys - diet high in tryptophan
CASES et al
geneti­cally engineered mice
COOPER
FAP universal in pit vipers
NESBITT
southern US more agg. when insulted
BUSHMAN
vented agg. => more agg.
BERKO­WITZ
jealousy, pain & loneliness can => agg., frustr­ation creates readiness
PHILLIPS
increased violence in week following a major boxing match
JOHNSON & DOWNING
KKK most electric shocks, nurses least
GERGEN et al
dark room study
FRANCIS et al
internet violence
HARER & STEFF­ENS­MEIER
inmates: black-> violence, white-> drug abuse
DILULIO
admini­str­ative control model (ACM)
HENSLEY et al
allowed prison visits & sexual contact
PRZYB­YLSKI et al
complexity = confou­nding variable
FREUD
viewing agg. release agg. impulses
BERKO­WITZ & ALIOTO
film showing agg. as vengeance (justi­fied)
FISCHER & GREIT­EMEYER
negative lyrics against males

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