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Intro to Psych (ch.1-2-4) Cheat Sheet by

Psychology 1-2-4 study guide
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Chapter 1

Psychology is the study of overt behavior and mental proces­ses­(overt= things you can see and mentally process)
Empiricism is inform­ation gained from direct observ­ati­on(hard evidence)
Psychology is a science and profession because what they do is based on eviden­ce/­science and they study human nature and the mind
Psychology is NOT just common sense because it is based on scientific observ­ations
A psycho­logists four main goals are, 1. Descri­ption: which is naming and classi­fying. 2. Unders­tan­ding: which is when we can state the causes of the behavior. 3. Predic­tion: which is the ability to forecast behavior accura­tely. and 4. Control: which is the ability to alter the conditions that affect behavior
Critical thinking it a type of reflection that involves asking a belief can be supported by science
"Few truths transcend the need for logical analysis and empirical thinki­ng" means some things don't need to be researched (religious beliefs)
"­Cri­tical thinkers often wonder what it would take to show that a 'truth' is false" means they want to find out when they are wrong, even when it is difficult to accept
"­Aut­hority or claimed expertise does not automa­tically make an idea true or false" means you don't have to automa­tically (dis) believe what a person says
"­Judging the quality of evidence is crucia­l" means you should also critically evaluate the quality of ones evidence
"­Cri­tical thinking requires an open mind" means you should be able to consider others evidence
Wilhelm Wundt was the first guy to make psychology an indepe­ndent science. Intros­pection means a better unders­tanding of one
Edward Kitchener took Wundt's ideas and added 'struc­ture'. Struct­uralism means to analyze mental life into basic elements
William James as influences by Darwin. Functi­onalism is the study of how we function and help us adapt to the enviro­nment
John Watson and B.F. Skinner studied the mind or consci­ence. Behavi­orism is the study of observable behavi­or(no mind)
Alfred Bandura studied a view that combines condit­ioning and thinking. Cognitive Behavi­orism is watching and then doing
Fritz Perls created Gestalt Psychology which is the study of thinking, learning, and perception as a whole unit (can't break it down)
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow focused on human experi­ence, potential, believed 'people are born good'. Humanism is the belief that society gets in the way
Freud came up with the uncons­cious mind, dream interp­ret­ation. Psycho­ana­lystic Psychology is where everyone is 'anal' and 'selfish'
Biological Perspe­ctive explains behavior through activity of brain, nerves, genes, and mechan­istic view of nature
Psycho­logical Perspe­ctive is the study of observable behaviors and the effects of learning
Socioc­ultural Perspe­ctive is that behavior is related to social and cultural enviro­nments within a person is born, grows, and lives
Eclectic Perspe­ctive is to draw insights from a variety of perspe­ctives
Psycho­logists do private practice or university teaching. They have to have a doctorate and license
Clinical Psycho­logist treat psycho­logical proble­ms/­res­earch on therapies and mental disorders
Counseling Psycho­logist treat milder problems as in troubles at work or school
Psychi­atrists can prescribe meds. They are medical doctors. Treatment of mental and emotional disorders. Have to have a PhD
Counselors are mental health profes­sionals who help people with problems that don't involve serious disorders
Social workers are mental health profes­sionals that apply social science to help patients
(Scien­tific method) Making observ­ations mean to observe behaviors
(scien­tific method) A problem is what is wrong
(scien­tific method) a hypothesis is an educated guess of the topic
(scien­tific method) gathering evidence means to test a hypothesis
(Scien­tific method) theory building means to find inform­ation about your theory
(scien­tific method) Publishing results means to publish your results to see if your results to see if its right/­wrong
Natura­listic observ­ation means to observe behavior as it unfolds in natural settings
An advantage of natura­listic observ­ation is you can gather important inform­ation.
A limitation is that there is no control possible
An observer effect is the change in an organisms behavior by knowing they are observed
An observer bias is to see what they expect to see
Correl­ational studies are two or more factors are studie­d/n­on-­exp­eri­mental study to measure relati­onships
Positive correl­ational is a statis­tical relati­onship in which if one increases in one measure, the other will correspond
Negative correl­ational means a statis­tical relati­onship where is one measure increase the other will decrease
Correl­ation is not Causat­ion!!! Causation is the act of causing some effect
A clinical method (case study) is an in-depth focus on a single partic­ipant
Phineas Gage was a young foreman on a work crew who had a 13 lb steel rod impaled into the front of his brain by an explosion of dynamite and he lived with zero problems
A survey method allows inform­ation about large numbers of people to be gathered and can address questions not answered by other approaches
A repres­ent­ative sample is a small group that accurately reflects a larger population whereas a population is an entire group of people belonging to a particular category
Internet surveys provide intere­sting inform­ation about topics BUT can limit web-based research
Social desira­bility is when people might not be honest­/people want to be better than they are
Subjects are who you use in an experi­men­t-not biased
Indepe­ndent variable are variables the researcher manipu­lates
Dependent variables depend on the indepe­ndents variable outcome
Extraneous Variables are where one has no control over
An experi­mental group is where one can alter a condition
Control groups are where things don't change
A random assignment is where everyone is assigned different things
A statis­tically signif­icance is research that the same outcome will occur
A meta-a­nalysis takes all the research, combines it, and finds the final outcome
A placebo effect is believing something is making a difference when it isn't (knowing its going to happen)
A single­-blind experiment is when subjects don't know what testing they've got
A double­-blind experiment is when the researcher AND the subjects are both blind to the testing
 

Chapter 4

Transd­ucers are devices that convert one kind of of energy into another
Sensations are sensory impres­sions; process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs
Percep­tions are the mental processes of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns
Stimul­us(­Ene­rgy­)--­>Re­cep­tor­s(S­ens­es)­-->­Neural Pathwa­ys(­Elect impuls­es)­-->­Bra­in(­Cortex)
Sensory Selection is consid­erable selection that occurs because sensory receptors do not transduce all the energies that they encounter
Sensory Analysis is the separation of sensory inform­ation into important elements
The pupil is the centre of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina
Lens are transp­arent structures behind the iris; colored part of eye
The Retina is the light-­sen­sitive layer of cells at the back of the eye
The optic nerve transmits impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye
The occipital lobe helps understand what the eyes are seeing
Rods are visual receptors for seeing in dim light that produce only black and white sensations
Cones are visual receptors for perceiving colors and daylight visual activity
Accomm­odation is changes in the shapes of the lens of the eye to enable the seeing of close and far objects
Hyperopia is having difficulty focusing on nearby objects (farsi­ghted)
Myopia is having difficulty focusing on distant objects (nears­ighted)
Astigm­atism is the defect in the cornea, lens, or eye that causes some areas of vision to be out of focus
Trichr­omatic theory is the theory of color vision based on 3 cone types (red, green, blue)
Opponent Theory is the theory of color vision based on 3 coding color systems (R and G, Y and Blue, Black and W)
Color blindness is a total inability to perceive color, and color weakness is the inability to distin­guish some colors
Dark adaptation is increased retinal sensit­ivity to light
Sound waves are waves of compre­ssion and rarefa­ction, by which sound is propagated in an elastic medium (air)
Outer Ear(Pinna, Eardru­m)-­>Middle Ear(Os­sic­les­)->­Inner Ear(Co­chlea, Hair cells)
Frequency Theory is tones up to 4000 herts are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each tone
Place Theory is higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea
Conductive hearing loss is poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear
Sensor­ineural hearing loss is loss of hearing caused by damage to the inner ear hair cells or auditory nerves
Absolute Thresholds are minimum amounts of energy that has to be transduce to be picked up on
Perception is the ability to see, hear, or come aware of something through senses
Perception Conseq­uen­ce(­Con­str­uction) is the mental model of external events
Figure­-Ground is perception so that part of a stimulus appears to stand out as an object against a less prominent background
Nearness is all other things equal, stimuli appears to stand out as an object against a less prominent background
Similarity is stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color, or form tend to be grouped together
Contin­uation is percep­tions that tend toward simplicity and continuity
Closure is the tendency to complete a figure, so that it has a consistent overall form
Size is the perceived size of an object that remains constant, despite changes in its retinal image
Shape is perceived shape of an object that is unaffected by changed it its retinal image
Brightness is the apparent brightness of objects that remain the same so long as they are illumi­nated by the same amount of light
Depth Perception is the ability to see 3-D space and to judge distances accurately
Binocular is inform­ation about distance and 3-D space which require two eyes
Binocular disparity is discre­pancy in the images that reach the right and left eyes
Binocular conver­gence is the second binocular depth cue (eyes coming together)
Monocular is inform­ation about distance and 3-D space which requires one eye
Monocular accomm­odation is the bending of the lens to focus on nearby objects
Monocular Pictorial cues are monocular depth cues found in paintings, drawings, and photog­raphs that impart inform­ation about space, depth, and distance
A visual cliff is to invest­igate depth perception in human and animal species
Perceptual learning is the changes in perception that can be attributed to prior experi­ences; result of changes in how the brain processes sensory inform­ation
 

Chapter 2

A cell body or soma is the main body of a neuron or other cell
A nucleus is the central and most important part
A dendrite is a neuron fiber(s) that receive incoming messages
An axon is fiber that carries inform­ation away from the cell body of a neuron
A myelin sheath is a fatty layer coating some axons
An axon terminal or synaptic knob is a bulb-s­haped structure at the ends of axons that form synapses with dendrites and somas of other neurons
A synaptic cleft or space is a micros­copic space between 2 neurons, over which messages pass
A receptor site are areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurot­ran­smi­tters or hormones
Resting potential is an electrical charge of an inactive neuron
A threshold is a point at which a nerve impulse is triggered
An action potential is a nerve impulse
An ion channel are tiny openings through the axon membrane
A negative after-­pot­ential is a drop in electrical charge below the resting potential
A saltatory conduction is the process by which nerve impulses travel down the axons of neurons coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer
An Excitatory neurot­ran­smitter partic­ipates in movement
An Inhibitory neurot­ran­smitter partic­ipates in moods
Neurop­eptides are brain chemicals whereas Neurot­ran­smi­tters are any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons
Neural Networks are interl­inked collec­tions of neurons that process inform­ation in the brain
Neurop­las­ticity is the capacity of the brain to change in response to experience
Soft signs are behavioral signs of nervous system dysfun­ctions (clums­iness)
EEG is a device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain (brain waves)
PET is an imaging technique that results in a computer (generated image of brain activity)
MRI is a recording of brain activity
A central nervous system is a complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system is a nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
A somatic system is voluntary control of the body
A autonomic System is no control of the body
Sympat­hetic (part of the autonomic system) arouses the body
Parasy­mpa­thetic (part of the autonomic system) slows down everything
The spinal cord is the conduction path for motor and sensory impulses
The reflex arc is the local reflexes
Sensory neurons carry inform­ation from the sense organs to the brain
Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the outer parts(­mus­cles)
Connection Neurons are neural cells that form connec­tions between neurons
The left brain is for language, math, time, movement, and controls the right side of the body. The right brain is skills, nonverbal, detect emotions, unders­tanding language, and controls the left side of the body. (The corpus callous cords connects the "two brains­"
The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain (walking and talking)
The frontal lobe controls sense of self, motor control, and higher mental abilities such as reasoning and planning
The parietal lobe are the sensations such as touch, temper­ature, and pressure
The temporal lobe controls hearing and language, memory (Broca's Area- something to do with verbal talking)
Occipital lobe controls vision ( located in the back of brain)
Motor cortex is where the brains nerve impulses originate that make voluntary muscular activity
Sub-co­rte­x(h­ind­brain) are all brain structures below the cerebral cortex
Medulla connects the brain with the spinal cord and controls vital life functions (heart rate, breathing)
Pons are areas on the brainstem that acts as a bridge between the medulla and other structures
Cerebellum is the brain structure that controls posture, muscle tone, and coordi­nation. (outside the brain-­"how to" skills)
Reticular activating system is part of the reticular formation that activates the cerebral cortex (arousal, movement, attention)
Sub-co­rte­x(l­imbic system) is the system in the forebrain that is closely linked to emotional response
Thalamus is the relay station to cortex for sensory inform­ation (sends inform­ation where it needs to go)
Hypoth­alamus has the control of hunger, thirst, temper­ature, and other visceral and bodily functions (emotions, motiva­tion)
Amygdala associates with fear responses (anxiety)
Hippoc­ampus associates with strong memories
The endocrine system contains glands whose secretions pass directly into the bloods­tream and lymph system
The pituitary gland is the master gland at the base of the brain whose hormones influence other endocrine glands
The pineal gland helps regulate body rhythms and sleep cycles
The thyroid glands helps regulate the rate of metabolism (in the neck)
The adrenal gland arouses the body, regulates salt balance, adjusts the body to stress, and affect sexual functi­oning hormones
Wernicke's helps understand commun­icating

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