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Beer brewing Cheat Sheet by

Beer Brewing Course
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Alcohol

Absorption
Ethanol is absorbed in small intestine and metabo­lised in liver
Metabo­lis­ation factors
Gender, body fat, liver size, amount of metobi­litic enzymes
Metabolism slide

Beer compos­ition

Water
Beer is 93% water, which counters dehydr­ation
 
Also helps with uric acid -> kidnet stones
 
Helps mineral balance
 
Better water to calories ratio
 
Low alcohol (free) beer is isotinic (have same tension)
Water numbers
1 g of alchol -> 10ml urine excretion
 
Alcohol makes you pee more by supression of vassop­ressin, which is hormone that reuptakes water
 
Dehydr­ation -> hangovers
Net water intake
330ml beer -> 191 ml
 
125ml wine -> -11
Health benifits
Less kidney stones (40% risk reduciton)
 
Beer after exercise does not decrease water uptake

Major nutrients

Calorie counts and exercise

Beer
12 oz = 150 kcal, alcfree 100 kcal
Red wine
125 kcal (antii­nfl­amm­atory)
Pina Colada
6 oz = 460 kcal
Margarita
280 kcal
100 kcal is
Casual biking: 23 min
 
LIfting weights: 15 mins
 
Pilates: 24 mins
 
Swimming: 15 mins moderate intensity

Nutrients

Nutrients II

Major nutrients
readily available carboh­ydr­ates: 10 - 60 g/litre as dextrins
 
little free sugars: < 5 g/litre – typical lager = 1 g/litre
 
Fibre: 1 beer contains 3-6% of the daily requir­ement for fibre
 
no fat
 
protein as small peptides – 2 - 6 g/litre
Trace nutrients
vitamins, minerals, antiox­idants, other hop compunds
Vitamins
Cereals good for B vitamins, malting increases B9 and B6 (spout­ing), B2 from yeast
 
Beer is more vitamin rich than beer
 
Too high levels of homocy­steine = heart disease, increase in level of homocy­steine after wine and spirits consum­ption, but not for beer
 
Lots of potassium and magnesium in beer
 
lots of silicon in beer, which is not readily available anymore in water
 
antiox­idants in beer help against free radicals that can start cancers
Polyph­enols
positive: beer taste and aging stability, health
 
negatives: haze (together with proteins), astringent bitterness
 
beer < white wine < red wine, beer has way less
 
shown to protect LDLs from oxidation
 

Health

Harmful effects
Accidents, brain degene­ration, hepatits, cancer, stroke
Amount pr week
7 for women, 14 for men, stop before 5 on one occasion
Most consumed alcohol
Wine, then beer
Habits
Beer drinkers were generally more unhealthy compared to wine drinkers
Beer vs wine
Higher drinking frequency, shorter education, lower income, more men, more smoking, lower exercise, less healthy diet

Calcul­ation of BAC

Formula
C=A/(p*r)
C
BAC
A
Alcohol intake in grams
p
body weight in kg
r
distri­bution or reduciton factor

Calcul­ation of decrease in BAC

Formula
C_t = C_0 - k * t
C_t
current BAC in promille
C_0
legal BAC in promille
k
individual factor, ca 1/400
t
time in minutes
rule of thumb
bac decreases 0.15 bac/hr
Exercise slides for examples

Exercise 1

Exercise 1 answers

 

Exercise 2.1

Exercise 2.1 answers

Exercise 2.2

Effects of alcohol consum­ption

2-4 drinks (men) 1-2 (women)
mortality protection of 18%
Jshaped curve
Risk goes down with modera­tion, goes up with excessive use
HDL and LDL
High density lipopr­otein up with alcohol (good choles­terol)
 
LDL down with alcohol (bad choles­terol)
diabetes in moderate drinkers
30% reduced risk of diabetes
 
alcohol is anti-i­nfl­amm­atory
 
enhanced insulin sensit­ivity with lower plasma insulin concen­tra­tions (risk factor for diabetes)
 
partly due to lower average weight of drinkers (obesity is a risk factor for diabetes)
Cognotive function
Alcohol decreases arteri­osc­lerosis in brain vessels, Protective antiox­idative effects of polyph­enols on cerebral cells (both good)
 
“regular consumers of alcohol had a signif­icantly lower risk of Alzhei­mer’s compared to non-dr­ink­ers”, protection was 50% for moderate drinkers
 
1-6 drinks­/week associated with lower risk of dementia in ≥ 65year adults, 20% reduction in dementia risk for moderates
 
Alcohol triggers release of dopamine, a hormone, which plays a major role in reward­-mo­tivated behavior
Osteop­orosis
“a positive associ­ation between alcohol intake and bone mineral density in older women has been reported in the original Framingham Osteop­orosis Study“
 
Suppre­ssion of gradual bone loss that increases with age, called resorp­tion, Positive effect of silicon on bone formation
 
Moderate consum­ption of alcohol may be beneficial to bone mineral density in men and postme­nop­ausal women. The tendency toward stronger associ­ations between BMD and beer or wine, relative to liquor, suggests that consti­tuents other than ethanol may contribute to bone health.

Exercise 2.2 answers

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