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Monastic Reform Cheat Sheet by

history     medieval

Benedi­ctine Rule

Mona­sti­cism: Poverty, Chastity, Obedience
St. Benedict of Nursia: 6th cent, influe­ntial
Long night office
7 daily offices
Social Functi­on:
3 types recruits: Mature laymen, clerics, noble children
Most recruits = noble children
Lay founda­tions & donations = v important
Commun­ities of monks needed to perform heavy penances

Cluny

Peak of Benedi­ctine life
Abbot Odilo (r. 994-1049)
respected & powerful
c.1100
divers­ifi­cation of religious orders
12th & early 13th century
new orders forming
Form­ation of new orders
protest against old orders

New Orders

12th century
Rise of indiv­idual spirit­uality
Monks unhappy w/ perceived decadence of Benedi­ctines
New orders:
August­inian, Cister­cians

Augustian Canons

Augu­stine's advice
Pray together
 
Obedience to superior
 
Hold posses­sions in common
Small churches, close to towns
August­inian: engaged w/ world
Benedi­ctine: secluded
Based life on letter from Augustine to religious women
 

Cister­cians

Fled from society
Rigorous life:
aggressive pursuit of religious ideal
Return to primitive Benedi­ctine Rule

Bernard of Clairvaux

1115:
Cistercian Order expanded.
 
Bernard asked to lead in foundation of Clairvaux monastery.
Abbot of Clairvaux in mid20s
High profile
Enthusiasm & ability
Drawn into politics, esp. papacy
Cist­ercians expanded rapidly:
Rejected tithes, rents, services, church profits August­inians relied on
 
Refused: perform masses, confes­sions, burials
 
Land only for agricu­lture & full possession
 
Removed selves from towns
 
Conversi (lay brothers) = basis for economy
20 Aug 1153
Bernard died
 
338 Cist abbeys (68 direct founda­tions of Clairvaux)
Born 1090. Aristo­cratic family in Fontaines
Schooled from young age, meant for a clerical career.

Religious Women

Relatively few women religious
England, 1066:
13 religious houses for women, 50 for men
1154:
60 for women, 500 for men
Double monast­eries
Groups of nuns w/ groups of monks
Cistercian efforts to prevent women from joining their Order

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