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Feedback and Techniques Cheat Sheet by

The following cheat sheet contains information about giving feedback in a language classroom
language     teaching     recommendations     classroom     techniques     feedback

Definition

Feedback in language teaching is the response from the teacher after any student perfor­mance using the language.
Negative feedback is used when students commit a mistake. Its purpose is to change behavior towards the correct direction.
Positive feedback is used when students use language correctly. Its purpose is to reinforce accurate and approp­riate use of the language.
 

Recomm­end­ations

Inclusion
Give equal attent­ion to well- performing students as much as low-pe­rfo­rming ones.
Moderation
Overdoing or underdoing feedback might result in students' distrust.
Variety
Always change feedback techni­ques so it doesn't seem automated.
Flexib­ility
Let mistakes happen and worry not to correct every single mistake or praise very single correct use.
Clarif­ication
Either it's for positive or negative feedback, always give simple reasons for each feedback.
 

Techniques

Ask- Tell-Ask
It consists in a three-step sequence. First, the teacher (T) asks for the student's (S) self-a­sse­ssment; second, T tells S the mistake that was commited; third, T asks S how he will improve to avoid the mistake next time.
Sandwich
The process has a similar structure as the previous one. First, T prai­ses S by mentioning strengths; second, T mentions the mistake; third, T prai­ses S's abilities to be better for next time.
Bridge
Lets the student know their past perfor­mance, compares it with their pres­ent perfor­mance, and then establ­ishes expect­ations of their future perfor­mance.

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