Conventions and Rules
* To find top, multiply bottom values. To find bottom, take top divided by other bottom value.
1. No. of Particles // Moles // Avogadro's No.
2. Mass // Moles // Molar Mass
3. Volume // Moles // 24dm3
4. Mass // Volume // Mass Concentration
5. Moles // Volume // Molar Concentration
Molecular Formula & Empirical Formula
1. Given % Composition, find masses of both substances in 100g. If 70% is A and 30% is B, then there is 70g of A and 30g of B in 100g of AB.
2. Find molar mass using periodic table.
3. Find no. of moles by multiplying mass and molar mass.
4. Divide all sides by the smallest number and round off to the nearest whole number to get mole ratio.
5. Molecular Formula is always a multiple of the Empirical Formula.
% Purity and % Yield
Limiting Reagents & Reactants in Excess
How to Find Limiting Reagents
The concept of limiting reagents is the available moles for reaction vs the needed moles for reaction.
Refer to mole ratio when converting Moles of A to Moles of B.
1 mole of any gas is 24dm3 at R.T.P.
Acids & Bases
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