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French Grammar Basics Cheat Sheet by

Basic rules to master beginner French!
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Articles

Arti­cle
Female
Male
Plural
the
la
le
les
a
une
un
des
le and la change to l' when used in front of a word starting with a vowel and most words starting with h

une, une, des changes to de when used in negative sentences

Adjectives

Male
Female
-
-e
-e
-
-f
-ve
-x
-se
-er
-ère
-an
-anne
-en
-enne
-on
-onne
-el
-elle
-eil
-eille
-et
-ette / -ète
some common adjectives follow no pattern

when an adjective describes a masculine and feminine noun, use the masculine plural form

Demons­trative Adjective

 
Female
Male
these­/those
this/­that
cette
ce (cet)
ces
cet is used in front of masculine nouns which begin with a vowel and most words beginning with h

add -ci to the end of nouns for close
add -là to the end of nouns for far

Possessive Adjectives

Adje­ctive
Female
Male
Plural
my
ma
mon
mes
your (tu)
ta
ton
tes
his/he­r/its
sa
son
ses
our
notre
notre
nos
your (vous)
votre
votre
vos
their
leur
leur
leurs
use mon, ton, son with feminine singular nouns in front of vowels and h
 

Pronouns

who
qui
whom
que
which
lequel
whose
dont
this
ce
that
ça
this
ceci
the one
celle /celui

Personal Pronouns

 
Sing­ular
Plural
I
je / moi
nous
you
tu / te /toi
vous
he/it
il
ils /eux
she/it
elle
elles
me
me / moi
nous
him/it
le
les /eux
her/it
la
to him/her/it
lui
leur
oneself
soi
-self
-même
-mêmes
je changes to j' in front of vowels and most h and the word y, same with me and te.

on can be used to mean we, someone, you, they, one or people in general

Possessive Pronouns

Pron­oun
Female
Male
mine
la mienne
le mien
yours
la tienne
le tien
his/hers
la sienne
le sien
ours
la nôtre
le nôtre
yours
la vôtre
le vôtre
theirs
la leur
le leur
add s to the end of the pronouns for plural form and use les instead of la, le

en is used in phrases with de to avoid repeating the same word
y is used in phrases with à to avoid repeating the same word
 

Phrases

He's/She's
C'est un/une
They are
C'est sont des
not
ne... pas..
never
ne... jemais...

Plural nouns

Sing­ular
Plural
-eau
-x
-eu
-x
-ou
-s*
-al
-aux
-ail
-aux
-s / -x /-z
nothing added
*some -ou will add -x
In general, all others take -s

Prepos­ition

Prep­osi­tion
to
à
to + the
à la (f), au (m), aux (p)
from
de
from + the
de la (f), du (m), des (p)
in
en
after
après
before
avant
with
avec
at
chez
against
contre
into
dans
since
depuis
behind
derrière
in front of
devant
between ... and
entre ... et
until
jusque
by/per
par
during
pendant
for
pour
without
sans
except
sauf
under
sous
on
sur
towards
vers
this is
voici
that is
voilà

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Comments

Whitney Whitney, 09:20 2 Jan 15

They are - Ce sont

FBZ FBZ, 08:56 15 Jun 15

never - ne... jamais...
jusque or jusqu' - if next word start with a voywel

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