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OCaml Basics Cheat Sheet by

ocaml

Pervasives

val raise : exn -> 'a
Raise the given exception
val (=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
tests for structural equality of e1 and e2
val (<>) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
Negation of (=).
val (==) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
e1 == e2 tests for physical equality of e1 and e2.
val (!=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
Negation of (==).
val (<) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
val (>) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
val (<=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
val (>=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool
val compare : 'a -> 'a -> int
compare x y returns 0 if x is equal to y, a negative integer if x is less than y, and a positive integer if x is greater than y.
val min : 'a -> 'a -> 'a
Return the smaller of the two arguments.
val max : 'a -> 'a -> 'a
Return the greater of the two arguments.
val not : bool -> bool
The boolean negation.
val (&­&) : bool -> bool -> bool
val (||) : bool -> bool -> bool
val (|>) : 'a -> ('a -> 'b) -> 'b
Revers­e-a­ppl­ication operator: x |> f |> g is exactly equivalent to g (f (x)).
val (~-) : int -> int
Unary negation.
val (mod) : int -> int -> int
Integer remainder.
val abs : int -> int
Return the absolute value of the argument.
val ( ** ) : float -> float -> float
Expone­nti­ation.
val sqrt : float -> float
Square root.
val log : float -> float
Natural logarithm.
val log10 : float -> float
Base 10 logarithm.
val ceil : float -> float
Round above to an integer value.
val floor : float -> float
Round below to an integer value.
val abs_float : float -> float
abs_float f returns the absolute value of f.
val float_­of_int : int -> float
Convert an integer to floati­ng-­point.
val int_of­_float : float -> int
val (^) : string -> string -> string
String concat­ena­tion.
val int_of­_char : char -> int
val char_o­f_int : int -> char
val fst : 'a * 'b -> 'a
Return the first component of a pair.
val snd : 'a * 'b -> 'b
Return the second component of a pair.
val (@) : 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
List concat­ena­tion.

Types and Type Inference

Function
Type
fun x y −> x + y
int -> int -> int
Include variables that are passed in inside of the type.

List basics

val length : 'a list -> int
Return the length
val nth : 'a list -> int -> 'a
Return the n-th element of the given list.
val rev : 'a list -> 'a list
List reversal.
val concat : 'a list list -> 'a list
Concat­enate a list of lists. The elements of the argument are all concat­enated together (in the same order) to give the result.
Prefix with List.

List Iterators

val map : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
val mapi : (int -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
Same as List.map, but the function is applied to the index of the element as first argument (counting from 0), and the element itself as second argument.
val fold_left : ('a -> 'b -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'b list -> 'a
val fold_right : ('a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
val map2 : ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
val fold_left2 : ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'b list -> 'c list -> 'a
val fold_r­ight2 : ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
Prefix with List.

List Scanning

val for_all : ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
checks if all elements of the list satisfy the predicate p
val exists : ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
checks if at least one element of the list satisfies the predicate p
val for_all2 : ('a -> 'b -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> bool
val exists2 : ('a -> 'b -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> bool
val mem : 'a -> 'a list -> bool
mem a l is true if and only if a is equal to an element of l.
val memq : 'a -> 'a list -> bool
Same as List.mem, but uses physical equality
Prefix with List.

List Searching

val find : ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a
returns the first element of the list l that satisfies the predicate p
val filter : ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
returns all the elements of the list l that satisfy the predicate p
val partition : ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
returns a pair of lists (l1, l2), where l1 is the list of all the elements of l that satisfy the predicate p, and l2 is the list of all the elements of l that do not satisfy p
Prefix with List.

Lists of pairs

val split : ('a 'b) list -> 'a list 'b list
Transform a list of pairs into a pair of lists
val combine : 'a list -> 'b list -> ('a * 'b) list
Transform a pair of lists into a list of pairs
Prefix with List.

List Sorting

val sort : ('a -> 'a -> int) -> 'a list -> 'a list
val merge : ('a -> 'a -> int) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
Merge two lists: Assuming that l1 and l2 are sorted according to the comparison function cmp, merge cmp l1 l2 will return a sorted list contai­nting all the elements of l1 and l2.
Prefix with List.

String basics

val length : string -> int
val get : string -> int -> char
returns the character at index n
val make : int -> char -> string
String.make n c returns a fresh string of length n, filled with the character c.
val sub : string -> int -> int -> string
returns a fresh string of length len, containing the substring of s that starts at position start and has length len.
val concat : string -> string list -> string
String.concat sep sl concat­enates the list of strings sl, inserting the separator string sep between each.
val map : (char -> char) -> string -> string
String.map f s applies function f in turn to all the characters of s (in increasing index order) and stores the results in a new string that is returned.
val trim : string -> string
val index : string -> char -> int
returns the index of the first occurrence of character c in string s
val rindex : string -> char -> int
returns the index of the last occurrence of character c in string s
val contains : string -> char -> bool
val upperc­ase­_ascii : string -> string
all lowercase letters translated to uppercase
val lowerc­ase­_ascii : string -> string
all uppercase letters translated to lowercase
val capita­liz­e_ascii : string -> string
first character set to uppercase
val uncapi­tal­ize­_ascii : string -> string
first character set to lowercase
Prefix with String.

Map

 
let rec map ( f : 'a -> 'b) (lst : 'a list) : 'b list =
match lst with
| [] -> []
| hd :: tl -> f hd :: map f tl ;;

fold_left

 
let rec foldleft (f : 'a -> 'b -> 'a)
(acc : 'a)
(lst : 'b list)
: 'a =
match lst with
| [] -> acc
| hd :: tl -> foldleft f (f acc hd) tl ;;

Different Data Types

list
<ty­pe> list
Group together data of the same type
tuple
(<t­ype­1> ∗ <ty­pe2­>)
Group together data of different types
Record
{field one: <ty­pe1­>; field two: <ty­pe2­>;...}
Groud together data of different types, but it is easier to access data.
Algebraic Data type
Name_one of <ty­pe1> | Name_two of <ty­pe2>
One piece of data can have many forms

Module

 
module type Integer =
sig
val value : int
end

module ThreeSig : Integer =
struct
let value = 3
let is_pos­itive : bool = true
end

Applying the signature Integer, via ": Intege­r" restricts ThreeSig makes only "­val­ue" public.

Functor

 
Takes in a module and returns a new module. Ex.

module Increment ( I : Integer ) : Integer =
struct
let value = I.value + 1
end

Functor can take in multiple modules.

Abstra­ction Barrier

 
If a signature has a type

module type OPERATORS =
sig
type t
end ;;

Then it can be overridden in the implem­ent­ation using the "­wit­h" keyword

module IntOps : OPERATORS with type t = int =
struct
type t = int
let times = ( ∗ )
let divide = ( / )
let plus = ( + )
let int_to_t x = x
end ; ;

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