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Unix Cheatsheet Cheat Sheet by

linux     command     unix     service

Basic commands

pwd
Where am I in the system
ls [path]
List of given path. Common params -l -h -a
cd [path]
Change directory
~ (tilde)
Used in paths as a reference to your home directory (eg. ~/Docu­ments )
. (dot)
Used in paths as a reference to your current directory (eg. ./bin ).
.. (dot dot)
Used in paths as a reference to your current direct­ories parent directory (eg. ../bin ).
[KEY] TAB
Start typing and press TAB. The system will auto complete the path. Press TAB twice and it will show you your altern­atives.

File manipu­lation

mkdir <dir name>
create directory
rmdir <dir name>
remove empty directory
rm <pa­th>
remove file also non-empty folder with -f param (-r recurs­ively)
touch <file name>
create empty file
cp <so­urc­e> <de­sti­nat­ion>
copy source to destin­ation
mv <so­urc­e> <de­sti­nat­ion>
move source to destin­ation also used for rename

Files (+filters)

head
show the first n lines (-n)
tail
show the last n lines (-n)
sort
sort lines in a given way
wc
How many words, characters and lines.
grep
search for given patters

Wildcards - May be used anywhere in any path

*
Zero or more characters (eg. b*).
?
Single character (eg. file.???).
[]
Range (eg. b[aio]t).

Useful commands

du -sh [dir/file]
Disk usage (-s summary -h humman readable)
df -h
Display how much disk space is used and also free
find /home -mtime -1
Find all files in the given directory (and subdir­ect­ories) which have been modified in the last 24 hours.
shutdown -h now
Shutdown the system. (Replace -h with -r for reboot.)
reboot
Restart machine
date
Show the current date and time
whoami
who you are logged in as
finger <us­er>
display inform­ation about user
man <co­mma­nd>
show the manual for command
whereis <ap­p>
show possible location of app
which <ap­p>
show which app will be run by default
 

Persmi­ssions

r
read
w
write
x
execute
perm­ission order
Owner(­user) Group Other
chmod <pe­rmi­ssi­ons> <pa­th>
hange permis­sions. Permis­sions can be either shorthand (eg. 754) or longhand (eg. g+x)

Piping and Redire­ction

>
Redirect STDOUT to a file.
>>
Redirect STDOUT to a end of file.
2>
Redirect the STDERR to a file.
<
Pass the contents of a file to a program as STDIN.
|
Feed the STDOUT of the program on the left as STDIN to the program on the right.

Apache

Config files virtual hosts
/etc/h­ttp­d/c­onf­/ht­tpd.conf
hostin­g.z­noj­mo.cz
/etc/h­ttp­d/c­onf.d/­vir­tua­ly.conf
Restart service gracef­ull
apachectl graceful
Restart service hard
sudo service apache2 restart
Log file
/var/l­og/­httpd
ispconfig specific
/var/w­ww/­web­1/log/
New virtual
web-uz­ivatel

MySQL

Config files
/etc/m­ysql/
 
/etc/m­ysq­l/c­onf.d/
Restart service
service mysql restart
 
service mysqld restart
 
/etc/i­nit.d/­mysqld restart
Status service
systemctl status mysql.s­­e­rvice
Log file
/var/l­og/­mys­ql/­err­or.log

Process management

CTRL + C
Cancel the currently running process
kill <pr­ocess id>
Cancel the given process. Include the option -9 to kill a stubborn process
ps
Obtain a listing of processes and their id's. Including the option aux will show all processes.
jobs
See a list of current processes in the backgr­ound.
CTRL+ Z
CTRL + Z Pause the currently running process and put it in the backgr­ound.
fg <job number­>
Move the given process from the background to the foregr­ound.

Colabo­ration Required

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