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AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell and Cell Membrane Cheat Sheet by

Ch 6: The Cell; Ch 7: Membrane Structure & Function; Ch 11: Cell Communication; Ch 12: The Cell Cycle
biology     cells     organelles     diffusion     membranes     osmosis

Organelles

Nucleolus
where rRNA & ribosomes are synthe­sized
Ribosomes
protein factories
Peroxi­somes
use converts H₂O₂ to water+O₂
Endome­mbrane System
regulates protein traffi­c+m­eta­bolic functions
Nucleus
holds chromatin, surrounded by nuclear envelope
Endopl­asmic Reticulum
Rough: makes proteins
Smooth: synthe­sizes lipids, stores Ca++, detoxifies drugs/­poisons
Golgi Apparatus
processes, packages, & secretes substances
Lysosomes
intrac­ellular digestion
Mitoch­ondria
powerhouse of the cell :) (respi­ration)
Vacuoles
storage & pumping out water
Chloro­plast
absorbs light & synthesize sugar
Cytosk­eleton
maintains cell shape, flow, positi­oning
Centrioles Centro­somes MTOCs
organize spindle fibers (cell division)
Cell Wall
protects, maintains shape, regulates water intake

Prokar­yotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

Prokar­yotes
Eukaryotes
-no internal membranes/organelles
-circular DNA

-small ribosomes
-anaerobic or aerobic metabolism
-no cytoskeleton

-mainly unicellular

-very small
-membr­ane­-bound organelles
-DNA forms chromosomes
-larger ribosomes
-aerobic metabolism
-cytoskeleton present
-mainly multicellular
-larger cells
 

Water Potential (Ψ= Ψp+ Ψs)

water potential
potential energy of water to move elsewhere
solute potential
tendency of water to move across a permeable membrane into solution (Ψs=-iCRT)

Types of Cell Commun­ication

Quorum Sensing
monitors bacteria population density & controls gene expression
Autocrine Signals
produced & used by same cell
Juxtacrine Signals
physically touching cells (gap junctions, plasmo­des­mata)
Paracrine Signals
adjacent (not touching) cells (synapses, growth factors)
Endocrine Signals
for all tissues, long distance (hormones)

Plasma Membrane Structure

Plasma Membrane Transport

Endocy­tosis & Exocytosis

 

Signal Transd­uction Pathways- Reception

Reception
ligand binds to cell membrane or intrac­ellular receptors & activates 2nd messenger
Ion channel
allows influx of ions to carry a message
GPCR
ligand binds, changes cytopl­asmic structure, activates G protein, bonds to GTP, catalyzes cAMP production
Protein kinase (RTKs)
ligand binds, aggreg­ate­s+a­cti­vates tyrosine kinase regions, activates relay proteins
Intrac­ellular
hydrop­hobic messengers diffuse into the cell and control genes

Signal Transd­uction & Response

Signal transd­uction pathway
multistep process in which extrac­ellular signal molecules produce a cascade effect
Second messenger
interm­ediate molecule (like cAMP) that distri­but­es+­amp­lifies signal throughout the cell
Response
regulation of protein synthesis by turning genes on/off

Apoptosis

may be engulfed when no longer needed
cells with genetic damage are replaced
defense against infection
signals trigger caspases to carry out apoptosis

The Cell Cycle

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