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AP Bio - Cells Cheat Sheet by

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Types of Cells

Prokar­yotes
"­Before nucleu­s", doesn't contain a membrane bound nuceleus
Eubacteria
Prokar­yote; True bacteria
Archaea
Prokar­yote; Missing link between prokar­yotic and Eukaryota cells
Eukaryotes
"True nucleu­s", contains a membrane bound nucleus
Eukarya
Eukary­otic; domain containing eukaryotes

Eubacteria

- Small (650 nm)
- Contains cell wall, can be gram stained
- Organe­lles:
Nucleoid = Ring of DNA; plasmids
Cytosol = Jelly-like material
Ribosome = None-m­embrane bound, synthe­sizes proteins (rRNA)
- Gram stain is purple = positive, thick cell wall
- Gram stain is pink = negative, thin cell wall

Archaea

- Discovered in 1977
- Cannot be gram stained
- Similar organelles as eubact­eria, but the cell wall is different
- Contains histones (packaging molecules, what chromo­somes wrap around)
- Contains chromo­somes, a eukaryotic charac­ter­istic

Eukarya

- Eukaryotic cells
- Organe­lles:
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Membrane bound organelles
Ribosomes

History of Cells

1665; Robert Hooke
Named cells
1830s; T. Schwann
Stated that cells make up all living things
1850s; Mettius Schleiden
Stated "...the vital process of individual cells must form first and is the basis of life"
Late 1850s; Rudolf Virchow
Establ­ished the cell theory with other scientists

Cell Theory

1) All living things are made of cells, cells are the unit of life for all living things
2) Cells arise from preexi­sting cells

Plasma Membrane

Phosph­olipid bilayer formed by the presence of water due to hydrop­hobic intera­ction
Function = control what goes in and out of the cell

Proteins in Cell Membrane

Integral Protein
Proteins that go completely through the protein
Peripheral Protein
Surface of the membrane, trigge­r/r­eceptor proteins = transp­ort­s/r­esponds
Glycop­rot­ein­/Gl­yco­lipid
used for cell recogn­ition
Choles­terol
Keeps the fluid-like charac­ter­istics of the membrane

Homeos­tasis

Homeos­tasis
Ability for a cell/o­rganism to maintain its internal enviro­nment
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death, based on genetics
Poikil­oth­ermic
Body temper­ature fluctuates
Homoth­ermic
Constant body temper­ature

Gastrula

Zygote - Fertilized egg
Blastula - Hollow sphere of germ/stem cells
 

Diffusion

Movement of a partic­le/­ato­m/m­olecule using a concen­tration gradient, move from an area of high concen­tration to an area of low concen­tration

Osmosis

Movement of water using a concen­tration of water, moving from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential

Facili­tated Diffus­ion­/Pa­ssive Transport

Diffusion of a large particle (ex. starch), requires an integral protein but no energy

Active Transport

Also called "­pum­ps", pumps material against concen­tration gradient (low to high), requires a protein and energy

Endocy­tosis and Exocytosis

Other transport mechanisms

Other Transport Mechanisms

Phagoc­ytosis
Used for large materials
Pinacy­tosis
Used for small materials
Forms of exocytosis and endocy­tosis

Transport Terms

Hypertonic
High concen­tration
Hypotonic
Low concen­tration
Isotonic
Equal concen­tration
Crenate
Cell shrinks
Lysis
Cell Explodes
If a cell is hypert­onic, the solution is hypotonic and vice versa

Hypert­oni­c/I­sot­oni­c/H­ypo­tonic

Methods of Nutrit­ional Feeding

Hetero­trophs
Organisms consumes other organisms
Autotrophs
Organisms makes its own foods (photo­syn­thesis)
Chemoa­uto­trophs
Uses sulfur as a food source
Organo­trophs
Uses organic compounds for food
Lithro­trophs
Uses inorganic compounds for food

Genetic Material

Nuclear Membrane
- Composed of phosph­olipids
- Has pores, allows mRNA to pass through
Nucleus
- Contains 2 types of DNA:
1) Chromo­somes (present during cell division)
2) Chromatin (uncon­densed DNA)
Nucleolus
- Not membra­ne-­bound ( = no phosph­oli­pids)
- Just condensed DNA
- Function: synthesize rRNA (ribos­omes)

Organelles

Organelle
Organ of the cell
Cytosol
Jelly-like material, cytosol + organelles = cytoplasm
Golgi Apparatus
Membrane bound; Function: Synthesize carbs, modify proteins & lipids
Ribosome
Not membrane bound; Function: Synthesize protein, composed of rRNA
Endopl­asmic Reticulum (ER)
Membrane bound; Has two types: 1) Rough - Contains ribosomes, synthe­sizes proteins and lipids 2) Smooth - No ribosomes, synthe­sizes lipids
Mitoch­ondria
Double membrane bound; Function: Provides 95% of the cell's energy
Peroxisome
Membrane bound; Function: Break down toxins
Vacuoles
Membrane bound; Function: Stores water, minerals, etc
Lysosome
Membrane bound; Function: Breakdown organelles and produce digestive enzymes, ONLY IN ANIMAL CELLS
Cell Wall (Plants)
Composed of cellulose & pectin (protein fiber)
Chloro­plast
Double membrane; Function: Photos­ynt­hesis, ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
Plastids
Double membrane; Function: Store starch, ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
Tonoplasts
Membrane for large central vacuole (which is ~90% of of plant cells, holds water, ions, salts, and buffers)

Chloro­plast

Two reactions:
1) Light reaction (Thyla­koid)
2) Dark reaction (Calvin cycle, stroma)

Mitoch­ondria

- Provides 95% of a cell's energy
- Matrix: Krebs cycle
- Cristae: Electron transport chain (ETC)

Cytosk­eleton

Found in all cells, Function: Support and hold shape of the cell, organelle placement, move things
Microf­ilament
7 nm thick, deals with muscle contra­ctions (actin)
Interm­ediate Filaments
8-10 nm thick, holds cell shape
Microt­ubules
25 nm thick, moves chromo­somes in cell division

Other

Root Hairs
Cytoplasm projec­tions, Function: water absorption
Alveoli
Air sacs in the lungs, needs water for gas exchange between blood and the air sac
Villi
In small intestine, 1,500 microvilli on villi increases surface area

What Happens Under These Condit­ions?

Animal cell is in a hypertonic solution
Cell crenates (gets smaller)
Animal cell is in a hypotonic solution
Cell lyse (lysis -> cell expands and explodes)
Animal cell is under UV light
Cell death, causes thymine dimers (thymine bonds with thymine in DNA)
Radiation
Cause ionization
Growth hormones as a food additive
Hormones are estrogen based, possibly causes delayed or early puberty
Pesticide
Also estrogen based, alligators don't develop sexual organs

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