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8F French April 24th Cheat Sheet by

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Verbs

AVOIR
to have
j'ai
nous avons
tu as
vous avez
il/ell­e/ont a
ils/elles ont
ALLER
to go
je vais
nous allons
tu vas
vous allez
il/elle on va
ils/elles vont
FAIRE
to do
je fais
nous faisons
tu fais
vous faites
il/elle/on fait
ils/elles font
ÊTRE
to be
je suis
nous sommes
tu es
vous êtes
il/elle/on est
ils/elles sont
The Prepos­ition À
to, in, at
à + le
au
à + les
aux
à + la
à la
Nega­tion
add "ne (n')" before, and pas after

Conjug­ation of Verbs

-ER
je -e
nous -ons
tu -es
vous -ez
il/elle/on -e
ils/elles -ont
-IR
je -is
nous -issons
tu -is
vous -issez
il/elle/on -it
ils/elles -issent
-RE
je -s
nous -ons
tu -s
vous -ez
il/elle/on -it
ils/elles -ent
First find the stem of the word, then add the correct ending

Position of Adjectives

In French, most adjectives come after the noun. However, some very common French adjectives come before the noun. For example:
petit(e)
grand(e)
joli(e)
beau/b­el/­belle
nouvea­u/n­ouv­el/­nou­velle
vieux/­vie­il/­vieille

Imperative form

Vous répétez! ->
Répétez!
Tu regardes le livre. ->
Regarde le livre.
Notice that if the tu form ends in -es (this includes all er verbs), you also drop the s from the ending of the verb.
To give a negative instru­ction, just use ne... pas either side of the verb in the usual way.
Remember that aller also drops the -s from the tu ending of the verb.

Ordinal numbers

To change a regular number into an ordinal number, you usually just add -ième to the normal number.
The word for 'first', premier (premi­ère) is an exception.
It is the only ordinal to have a masculine and feminine form.

Talking about pastimes

Use jouer à... to talk about games you play.
Use jouer de... to talk about musical instru­ments you play.
Use faire de... to talk about most other sports and recrea­tional activties that you do.
à + la = à la
de + la = de la
à + l' = à l'
de + l' = de l'
à + le = au
de + le = du
à + les = aux
de + les = des
When faire de and jouer de are used negati­vely, just use de (d') instead of de la, du, (de l') or des.
Tu fais de la boxe? -> Non, je ne fais pas de boxe.
Tu joues du violon? -> Non, je ne joue pas de violon.

Which or what?

The word quel­(le­)(s) means 'which' or 'what' and is always followed by a noun.
It can also be used in exclam­ations to mean 'What (a)...!'
Qu'est-ce que is another way of saying 'what', but:
-it is only used in questions
-it is always linked to a conjugated verb, not a noun.
Examples:
Tu joues de quel instru­ment?
Which instrument do you play?
Qu'est-ce que tu fais le weekend?
What are you doing on the weekend?
Notice that qu' is used if que is followed by a vowel.
 

There is, there are

Il y a means both 'there is' and 'there are'.
The negative form is il n'y a pas (de)...
(n' is used because y is a vowel in French.)
Voilà can also be used to mean 'there is' or 'there are', but only when you are pointing out someone or something.

Possessive Adjectives

Masc­uline
Femi­nine
Plural
Engl­ish
Mon
Ma
Mes
My
Ton
Ta
Tes
Your
Son
Sa
Ses
His/He­r/Its
Nôtre
Nôtre
Nos
Our
Vôtre
Vôtre
Vos
Your
Leur
Leur
Leurs
Their
1). The possessive agrees with the noun, not the subject.
2). If a noun starts with a vowel and is feminine, use mon, ton, son form.
3). 's in English = Use "­of" in French (de)
eg. Bob's dad = Pere de Bob

Irregular Adjectives

Invariable adject­ives: Adjectives that don't change. For example:
cool
super
orange
marron
Adjectives that don't add an extra 'e' for feminine as they already end in 'e'. For example:
bizarre
adorable
horrible
timide
rouge
Irregular adject­ives: Adjectives that change irregu­larly.
Type of noun
Adjective
masc. sing.
beau nouveau vieux
masc. sing starting with vowel sound
bel nouvel vieil
fem. sing.
belle nouvelle vieille
masc. pl.
beaux nouveaux vieux
fem. pl.
belles nouvelles vielles
Other examples: austra­lien, vietna­mien, mignon, affect­ueux, dangereux, généreux, studieux, spacieux, nul, violet, blanc
These adjectives are regular for masc. sing. and mask. plural but at fem. sing. they double the last letter and then add an 'e'. At fem. plural, they add an 's' to their fem. plural form (except blanc which changes into blanche for fem.sing.)
masc. sing.
australien
masc. plural
austra­lie­ns
fem. sing.
austra­lie­nne
fem. plural
austra­lie­n­nes

N'est-ce pas?

N'est-ce pas is used to confirm what you've just said is correct. There is no single English equiva­lent.

Time

The expres­sions 'am' and 'pm' are not used in France. Instead, 24-hour clock times are widely used. However, if the time is on the hour, people sometimes use the 12-hour clock times and add the words:
du matin (in the morning)
de l'aprè­s-m­idi (in the afternoon)
du soir (in the evening).
Notice that to say what time it is, you use il est, not c'est.

Ne... jamais

You can use ne... jamais the same way to say what never happens. For example:
Je ne fais pas de babysi­tting.
I don't babysit.
Je ne fais jamais de babysi­tting.
I never babysit.
After ne... jamais (as with ne... pas), de la, de l', du and des change to de.

Reminders

Oui is not the only way to say 'yes' in French. If you're answering 'yes' to a negative question, you use si instead of oui.
Using the definite article le before a day of the week shows that the event always happens on that day of the week.

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